[1] At the University of Ulster, for example, introductory economics is taught on a wide range of programmes, including business studies, accounting, engineering, building, sports studies and health sciences.

[2] In a TLS environment, lectures facilitate teacher-led information while seminars provide an opportunity (in theory at least) for teacher–student and student–student interaction.

[3] Interestingly, it is suggested in Becker and Watts (1996) and Becker (1997) that teaching methods dominated by traditional ‘chalk and talk’ lectures with rare use of small-group interactive teaching methods may be a contributing factor in causing the decline in applications for single-discipline economics in the USA.

[4] The terms ‘partial’ and ‘full-format’ to describe different PBL environments are the author’s own. Under ‘full-format’ PBL there is provision for the occasional mini-lecture if required (see section 5).

[5] For an excellent detailed discussion of the role of facilitator, see Woods (1996), ch.2, ‘On being a coach/facilitator’ at:

[6] Thus PBL is less likely to generate ‘redundant’ topics that are avoided by students in the final examination.

[7] These results are consistent with those cited by Longuevan (2000) when using PBL to teach economics at University of California, Irvine (at:

[8] After accessing Bized at, select ‘learning materials’ followed by ‘economics’. This site contains useful level 1 material on a range of topics, including market failure, costs and minimum wages.