What methods could be used to encourage students to engage with assessment criteria both before they start studying for the coursework and while they are researching/writing the coursework? Two possible activities will be outlined in some detail.
The first activity is a marking exercise which could help students to engage with the assessment criteria before they start their assignments. A detailed case study is included which outlines and evaluates how the exercise was implemented onto an economics degree programme. The second activity is the use of self-assessment sheets. These could be used as a way of encouraging students to engage with the assessment criteria while actually writing their assignments. Some discussion of the different ways of introducing these sheets is included as well as some discussion of the potential drawbacks and how these might be avoided.
As previously discussed in Chapter 2, students may not respond to feedback because they do not understand the assessment criteria. One approach to this problem is to provide more detailed written guidance. However given the difficulty that many students find with the precise meaning of much of the language, this response on its own will probably meet with limited success. In order to complement the written guidance, sessions could be arranged that actively engage the students with the assessment criteria. One such approach is a marking exercise. The rationale behind this type of initiative is that students will gain a better understanding of terms such as ‘analysis’ and ‘evaluation’ when they see examples in the context of a specific economics assessment. Research by Rust et al. (2003) found that these sessions had a statistically significant impact on the achievement of business students in subsequent coursework. The following case outlines how this type of activity was introduced into a mandatory first year skills module entitled ‘Developing Academic and Professional Skills’. This is a 10 credit module on the economics single honours degree programme at Coventry University which runs in the autumn semester/term with approximately 150 students. It operates with a one-hour lecture per week plus a one-hour workshop per week. There are approximately 25 students in each workshop. The module aims to provide students with a range of skills which will enable them to become effective learners in higher education and enhance their chances of obtaining graduate employment.
It is difficult to assess the benefits quantitatively as this requires a control group which is prevented because of ethical concerns. In order to get a more intuitive sense of the effectiveness of the activity, a series of student focus groups were carried out. Comments about assessment criteria included:
‘We are often given a marks scheme but it is written in lecturer’s language.’
‘It is difficult to apply what was said in the assessment criteria as the language is very general and difficult to apply to a particular assignment.’
‘I was unsure of the precise meaning of comments such as – you need to go into more detail with your economics analysis.’
Comments about the marking exercise included:
‘I found reading examples of other students work on similar topics far more useful than being given any assessment criteria or marking sheets.’
‘Different lecturers weighted different aspects of the criteria they provided differently. Without the examples we can’t tell exactly what they want.’
Overall the feedback was very positive with students requesting that similar activities should be introduced into other economics modules on the course.
The marking exercise could be implemented in a number of different ways.
The decision to get the students to mark the work outside of class was taken in this case because the timetabled slot for the workshop was only 50 minutes long. It was thought that this would not provide enough time for the students both to mark a 1500 word piece of work and discuss the comments with their peers. However this does create a problem as there are always some students who attend but have not completed the work. One possibility is to group them together on the basis of those who have and those who have not completed the task. If a longer slot (minimum of 90 minutes) can be timetabled the activity might work more effectively if the marking is completed in class. The students could be given 25 minutes to mark each assignment before discussing their thoughts and reporting back their agreed grades and feedback. A drawback with carrying out the marking in class is that students will have different reading speeds and so will finish at different times making it difficult to start the group discussions. Also some students may struggle to understand the piece of writing in the time allocated in class.
The lecture on academic writing skills may not be an effective way of communicating assessment requirements. Student feedback from the focus groups suggested that they had not found it very useful. The comments tended to support the previously discussed point that students often find it difficult to understand assessment standards if they are communicated in a passive environment and outside of the context of a particular piece of writing. A more effective alternative may be to omit the lecture altogether and instead provide the students with copies of the marking sheets and assessment criteria that were used to mark the essays originally. They could then use these to mark the work themselves either before class or in-class. Another option would be to ask the students to mark the work without any guidance. They would have to decide what makes a good assignment and in the process develop their own assessment criteria. This could then be compared with the actual assessment criteria used by the tutor with some discussion around the similarities and differences. This may prove a useful way of overcoming any misconceptions students have about academic writing.
Some of the following concerns have been frequently expressed by tutors:
Some colleagues have argued that providing exemplars is an example of spoon feeding and may contribute towards learned dependence i.e. over reliance on the tutor. There does appear to be some tension between the guidance demanded/expected by students and the onus placed on independent/self-directed learning by tutors. However the transition of students from school to university is probably more difficult than it has ever been. The learning environment they will have experienced at school is increasingly likely to have been one of detailed guidance and high dependency. League tables have generated strong incentives for teachers to ensure their pupils achieve the highest grades possible and a rational response has been to increase the level of coaching. Given this prior experience, departments may need to introduce activities such as the marking exercise in order to help their students become more independent learners. The focus should be on using these methods with the first years with the aim of developing their self-directed learning skills as the course progresses. The ultimate aim is to make the students independent learners by the end of the course and they may require some assistance towards this goal in the early stages.
There may be worries that students will try to copy the exemplars when completing their own work. This makes the choice of examples very important. They need to be similar enough to current assignments for students to see the relevance, while not so similar that they believe they can simply copy them. It is also important to stress that the purpose of exemplars is to provide a guide and not a model answer. A related concern is that the exemplars may be interpreted in a very prescriptive manner. Rather than an example, they may be read as a blueprint for success. This may encourage the student to stick rigidly to the structure of the good exemplars and stifle originality. Perhaps to overcome this problem it would be helpful to use two very different essays which both received a very high mark.
It might be tempting to think that simply providing the students with the samples of work without carrying out the workshop could capture most of the learning gains but at a far lower cost. However evidence from Rust et al. (2003) suggests that being actively involved in the marking activity is an important determinant of the improved student performance. Simply providing examples of work may only capture a small fraction of the potential learning benefits as it remains a fairly passive way of transmitting the assessment information.
Experience from running the workshops has shown that students are far more confident in judging some aspects of the work than others. They found it relatively straightforward to comment on items such as ‘referencing’, ‘labelling on diagrams’, ‘quality of English’ and ‘presentation’. They will be far less confident applying criteria such as analysis, evaluation and synthesis. It is very important that the discussion in the workshop focuses on these more difficult issues and the tutor is able to highlight sections in the exemplars to help illustrate what is meant by these terms in the context of an actual economics assignment.
Experience from running this workshop has shown that the economics students prefer the sample assignments to be as recent as possible. Ideally they would be from the previous academic year. This does mean having to change the examples every year.
It may be optimistic to expect many of the students to appreciate fully the meaning of terms such as ‘analysis’ and ‘evaluation’ after just one marking exercise. The activity will probably need to be repeated across a number of modules before they develop an understanding similar to that of the academic staff. Ideally it would be used in both Microeconomics and Macroeconomics modules in the first year of an undergraduate degree programme.
Make sure you focus on examples of work which demonstrate and illustrate the parts of the assessment criteria that students find the most difficult to understand, e.g. analysis, evaluation and synthesis. Try to make the exemplars as recent as possible.
Self-assessment sheets could be used to develop the students’ ability to evaluate their work during the research and write-up stage. The forms can provide a structured framework to help them reflect and critically evaluate their own assignments. Generic versions are available from various websites (for example) and could be easily adapted by tutors for use with specific coursework. One option is to include some simple yes or no questions, for example ‘Please indicate whether you have checked the following:
The form could ask the students to assess their own performance against a number of criteria. For example, they might be asked to rate their own work as excellent, good, adequate or poor against the following:
Some questions could be much more open ended with space left for the student to make some comments, for example ‘Please list what you feel are the strengths of the work’; ‘Which aspects of the work did you find the most difficult or are most dissatisfied with?’ Another alternative would be simply to ask the students to assess their work using the same marking sheet as the tutor. Two ranking lists could be included against each of the criteria, i.e. one for the student to complete and one for the lecturer to complete. An example is shown below.
Please rate your own work using the following scale:
1 = poor 2 = adequate 3 = good 4 = excellent
Understanding and application of relevant economic theory
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
Whatever version of the form is adopted, once completed, the students should attach a copy to their coursework when it is submitted.
Rather than honest self-evaluation students may behave strategically if they believe that their rankings will have an influence on the tutor. For example, they may think that ranking their own work as poor will increase the likelihood of receiving a low mark from the tutor. It may be more effective to have two separate forms – one for the feedback provided by the tutor and one for the self-assessment sheet. It might also be useful to ask the students to attach the self-assessment sheet at the end of the assignment and the marking feedback sheet at the front of the assignment. The lecturer could explain that they will only look at the self-assessment sheet after they have filled in the marking sheet and awarded a final mark.
Evidence from their use in three Geography modules found that completion rates varied between 28% and 75%. You could make submission of the self-assessment sheets part of the assessment criteria and deduct marks if they fail to attach them to the coursework. Alternatively you might explain that you will only release marks once the forms are submitted. However this may create some extra administrative costs for the tutor.
Studies have found that a majority of students admit to filling out the form at the last minute. They also acknowledged that they tended to simply tick the boxes without giving much thought to the self-evaluation process. Feedback from their use on Geography modules suggested that when filling out the forms a number of students realised the potential benefit but printed them out so late that there was no time to change their coursework. Those that had used them more than a few days before the deadline had found it useful in helping them to focus on the precise requirements for the coursework. They had adapted their coursework in response to this structured reflection process. This suggests that it is very important that the potential benefits of self-assessment forms are explained before they are used. However students may simply have to experience the forms and the regret of missing the potential benefits before they will engage with the process on subsequent assignments. It is strongly advised therefore that they are used on a number of modules and especially in the first year of the course. The form could be adapted to the assessment requirements of each particular module.
If possible use the self-assessment sheets across a range of modules as students do not seem to fully appreciate the potential benefits until they have failed to take advantage of the sheet on at least one occasion.