At the University of Ulster, for example, introductory economics is taught on a wide range of programmes, including business studies, accounting, engineering, building, sports studies and health sciences.
 In a TLS environment, lectures facilitate teacher-led information while seminars provide an opportunity (in theory at least) for teacher–student and student–student interaction.
 Interestingly, it is suggested in Becker and Watts (1996) and Becker (1997) that teaching methods dominated by traditional ‘chalk and talk’ lectures with rare use of small-group interactive teaching methods may be a contributing factor in causing the decline in applications for single-discipline economics in the USA.
 The terms ‘partial’ and ‘full-format’ to describe different PBL environments are the author’s own. Under ‘full-format’ PBL there is provision for the occasional mini-lecture if required (see section 5).
 For an excellent detailed discussion of the role of facilitator, see Woods (1996), ch.2, ‘On being a coach/facilitator’ at: http://chemeng.mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm
 Thus PBL is less likely to generate ‘redundant’ topics that are avoided by students in the final examination.
 These results are consistent with those cited by Longuevan (2000) when using PBL to teach economics at University of California, Irvine (at: www.pbl.uci.edu/winter2000/ss10csurvey.html).
 After accessing Bized at www.bized.co.uk, select ‘learning materials’ followed by ‘economics’. This site contains useful level 1 material on a range of topics, including market failure, costs and minimum wages.